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English : Nation and Narration Spring Ina group of Boston merchants and traders began their campaign to transform a riverbank below the thirty-foot falls of the Merrimack River into "the greatest textile manufacturing establishment in the country. The cotton mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, and other New England sites began to employ the first female industrial labor force in the United States. Almost twenty years later, factory workers wrote and edited the Lowell Offering, a literary magazine showcasing the virtues and talents of the female operatives in verse, essays and short fiction Eisler, This site discusses the female Lowell factory worker as portrayed in the Offering. Although the magazine never expressed an overtly feminist view of the factory girls' condition, nor invoked a working-class consciousness similar to later labor expressions in Lowell, there is evidence of a narrative strategy and ideology speaking both to the factory women and the middle-class readership outside of the mill town.

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We have not thought it necessary to Bibliography Coolidge, John. Eisler, Benita.

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Grateful, Farley's newcomer writes that "I have since inquired if she were not unusually kind," and a better understanding of the economic motive for hospitality is clear: "Every girl, let her be ever so I know you think so, or you would have urged my return. In "Evening before Pay-Day," Rosina works not only to supplement the domestic wojen industrial wage-work is the most useful role she can fulfill for her faraway home, even when tragedy unfolds there.

Like Farley's "Affections," the fellow boarders regard Rosina's conduct with contempt, until unfortunate news arouses their sympathies. Shall we let you in on the secret? The retelling of factory life was accomplished so that female authors could reconcile it with the feminine literary tradition. This site discusses the female Lowell factory worker as portrayed in the Offering. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, This new opportunity was established with clear intent by the Lowell Cotton Mills.

Yet it also put several conditions on this freedom. To see the feminine response to such a contract, we may turn briefly to one author's portrayal of the advantages and lowelll of industrial life.

Next Start NOW! It subordinates the evidence for independence or autonomy to relate stories of familial or sentimental ties binding the factory girl to the world outside of factory life. The loss of status experienced when one enters into factory work, and the moral dangers thought to inhere in lookig life, spurred many female writers back to entreat the "cult" for admission.

Instead, Rosina's twin sister, Marcia, is deathly ill, and all her earnings go to pay for her care. In seeking to legitimize industrial roles within the cult of true womanhood, the Offering was loo,ing something entirely different from the labor reform groups calling for a ten-hour day.

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Rosina's threadbare gingham dresses, her lack of new shoes, and her gor to giving money to the church make the boarders assume she hoards her pay; but the story soon shows this is not the case. It was one of the many answers to the question of what social ties were important to the "self-dependent" woman.

In order to do this, the narratives often concern themselves with the identities of women operatives away from the factory. To a great degree, the economic realities of New England textile work provoked this question from the domestic narratives of the day. The Ten Hour Movement of the latter s in Lowell was a sharply different form of labor protest from the earlier walkouts of and Baker implies that satisfied factory operatives value economic lookong social independence, the power of cash payments, and the possibility of self-determination enough to endure the broad disjunction forr the domestic and industrial contexts.

In the absence of her actual care, the wage-earning industrial role is the most vaunted place a faithful daughter can fulfill. The paternalist view of femininity, looking belonging in the home, "persisted, bringing guilt and confusion in the midst of opportunity. Above all, these women were not encouraged to make money for their loewll use. English : Nation and Narration Spring Ina group of Boston merchants and traders began their campaign to transform a riverbank below the thirty-foot falls of the Merrimack River into "the greatest textile manufacturing establishment in the country.

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Cott, Nancy F. Contributions in American History, 67, Edward Pessen, ed. We have not thought a constant repetition of the fkr necessary, that our life was one of confinement; when it was known that we work in one spot of one room. Dublin, Thomas. Yet at the same time, the "worth, happiness and intelligence" existing among the workers needs clearer expression in order to redeem these women in the eyes of the middle-class reader.

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Conclusion: from feminine to working-class consciousness? Are you giving up on seeking Single women in Lowell? It could provoke feminist consciousness of the oppressive nature of domesticity, as positive expressions of the female role in industrialism displayed; it could also stimulate a yearning vor refined and renewed feminine roles within the home. Writers, male and female alike, contrasted this new identity against the domestic vision expressed by women's magazines such as Godey's Lady's Book.

The characters and narrators in the Offering do precisely this: placed in an industrial context, they argue for the pertinence of factory life for domestic norms. Short stories portray operatives as spending money for various things, wise and unwise: either they dissipate it in fine clothes and numerous novels, or save for another purpose. The mother's letter, announcing Marcia's certain death, does not exhort Rosina to come to the family in observing the death; and Rosina knows why.

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A new social category was in the process of construction: the female wage-worker. Mill owners, and many writers in the Offering, stressed the selfless and ultimately domestic reasons why women came to Lowell: to send a brother to school or help an impoverished family. She replies to the letter immediately, saying I do wish very much to see you all, especially dear Marcia, once lookin but it is loewll best. We are your exclusive single women dating site, bringing together busy men and women in the Lowell area.

My analysis of the Offering, then, shows that women writers mn industrial activity to domestic ties in order to reaffirm a place for the operative within the "proper sphere" of the household economy, and thus a component of the legitimate feminine role.

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In Eisler's collection of writings by Offering authors, several characters earn a wage for the needs of a family member: either for the betterment of a brother or the financial redemption of a fatherless family. In conforming to the norms of feminine literature, the Offering reconstructs the operatives' character. View Profile. Although the magazine never expressed an overtly feminist view of the factory girls' condition, nor invoked a working-class consciousness similar loooking later labor expressions in Lowell, there is evidence of a narrative strategy and ideology speaking both losell the factory women and the middle-class readership outside of the mill town.

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Whereas in the s, Lowell female workers possessed a communal identity based on the "sense of their own worth and dignity as daughters of freemen," more radical visions "expressed a mounting feeling of community among women operating and a realization that their interests and those of their employers were not identical, that they had to rely on themselves and not on corporate benevolence to achieve a emn in the hours of labor.

Thomas Dublin, charting the evidence for working-class consciousness in Lowell, writes that a newer, more radical vision supplemented the earlier ideals of female labor rights. Explaining the Offering: paternalism, cor and a new role The feminine attitude of the Offering, indeed its very existence, are all explicable in terms of the operatives' social milieu from the s until The female worker called upon the cult of wmoen to endorse her new role and recognize her as a new sister: the factory girl.

Farley acknowledges that the factory girl faces a status disadvantage when compared to the condition of other authors and commentators. Fired from her job, stricken by illness, it is revealed eventually that she has been working so that the visitor, in reality her brother, could court a proud, middle-class woman from another part of town. The cotton mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, and other New England sites began to employ the first female industrial labor force in the United States.

The manufacturers erected guarantees against the corruption and proletarianization of their labor force: workers would not stay more than a few years; they would be provided with cheap, respectable housing; their long hours would keep them out of trouble Coolidge, Once worthy of condemnation, her conduct is now above reproach.